Learning Tajweed is the key to an accurate recitation of Quran as it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad PBUH but this learning journey does not come without some challenges and learning about types of Madd is one of these challenges but it is worth every effort for the sake of the reward that you will gain. In this article, we will discuss a specific type of Madd which is Madd Badal.
Madd Badal Definition:
We have previously discussed the different types of Madd that fall under the category of Secondary Madd. These types are divided into Madd that is caused by Hamza and Madd that is caused by Sukoon. Madd Badal or Exchange Madd is one that is caused by Hamza. So what is Madd Badal?
Madd Badal is a type of Madd Far’ee that occurs when the Hamza comes before the Madd letter at the beginning or in the middle of words. For it to be considered Madd Badal, the Harakah on the Hamza must match the Madd letter that follows it. To illustrate this further, check these two words:
In the word “إيمانهم”, the Kasrah that is found under the Hamza matches the Madd letter, Yaa; thus, it is a case of Madd Badal where the Madd letter is lengthened for 2 counts according to Hafs recitation. Nevertheless, the word “أيمانهم” has a Fatha on the Hamza that does not coincide with the Madd letter that follows it so it is not a case of Madd Badal.
Furthermore, the name for this Madd comes from the fact that the Madd letter was originally a Hamza and it was substituted or exchanged with a Madd letter that suits the Harakah on the Hamza. That is, the word “آمن” which starts with a Hamza followed by a Madd letter consisted, in the first place, of a Hamza with Fatha and a Hamza with Sukoon “أأمن”. Then, the second Hamza was substituted with an Alif that matches the Fatha on the preceding Hamza. This exchange is done for the purpose of avoiding the succession of two Hamzas within one word which creates a cacophony similar to the one found when the indefinite article “a” is followed by a word that starts with one of the English vowels as in “a apple”. In that case, “an” is used as a solution to avoid this succession but in the case of Madd Badal, the second Hamza is substituted with a Madd letter.
Madd Badal Examples in Quran:
Some Madd Al Badal examples from Quran include:
- – (لِإِيلَافِ قُرَيْشٍ)
- – (فكيف آسى على قوم كافرين)
- – (قالوا أُوذينا من قبل أن تأتينا ومن بعد ما جئتنا)
Note about Madd Badal Tajweed Rules:
These Madd Badal rules are applied in the aforementioned case but scholars have stated that it also applies to others in which the Madd letter is part of the original structure of the word. This could be divided into four sections:
1. One that is applied in cases of continuing and pausing as in:
– (نَبِّؤُونِي بِعِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ)
2. One that is applied only if the reader continues reciting as in the verse:
– (وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ)
This is because if the reader pauses at the word (تشاؤون), it will be a case of Madd ‘Arid lil-sukoon.
3. One that is applied only if the reader pauses but not when they continue reciting as in:
– (وجاءو أباهم عشاء يبكون)
Here, if the reader continues reciting after the word “جاءو”, this will call for lengthening the Madd wow since it is followed by a hamza in the next word “أباهم” which is Madd Munfasil. However, in case of pausing, the word “جاءو” is said to contain Madd Badal.
4. One that is applied when the reader begins reciting with this word which is found in:
– (اِئْتُونِي بِكِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ هَذَا﴾
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