If you are pursuing knowledge in Tajweed and want to perfect your Quran recitation, then “Iqlab” or “Iqlab letters” are terms you must have heard of. Iqlaab is a component of Tajweed that relates to the rules for Noon Saakin and Tanween; therefore, understanding this concept and applying it is essential for any Quran reciter or student of Tajweed.
Such rules that are concerned with minute details of recitation are evidence of the miracle of the Quran that is preserved and recited over the centuries in the same form as it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad PBUH by the Angel Jibreel. Since Iqlaab is of significance in this concern, the purpose of this article is to shed some light on the meaning of the term “Iqlab” in Tajweed, and how it could be applied in the recitation of Quran while providing some examples for clarification.
What is Iqlab in Tajweed?
Have you ever come across a small meem symbol over or under a Noon Saakin or accompanied a Tanween? Were you confused if you should pronounce it as a Noon or as a Meem?
Have no worries! We’ll explain what this symbol refers to and how you can pronounce it. This requires us to elaborate on the term “Iqlaab”.
The concept of “Iqlab” in Tajweed is directly linked to the meaning of the word “Iqlab” in Arabic since it refers to: the changing or transformation of something from one form to another.
Now, we’ll discuss the question “What is Iqlab in Tajweed?”
First, read the following rhyme:
With Iqlab letters, you’ll surely see,
A quick change in sound, as easy as can be,
When Noon or Tanween comes before,
A Ba sound will emerge, that’s for sure!
This rhyme summarizes the rule of Iqlaab in Tajweed. Iqlab is considered one of the four Tajweed rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween which also include Izhar, Ikhfaa, and Idgham. Iqlab refers to the changing or transformation of the Noon Saakin or Tanween into a meem, accompanied by the sound of Ghunnah. This takes place when Noon Saakin or Tanween precede the letter Ba (ب) within one word or between two words.
What are Iqlab Letters?
This process of transformation or Iqlab that the Noon Saakin and Tanween go through only happens when they are followed by one letter. The Iqlab letters in Arabic contain just one letter; Ba (ب).
Examples of Iqlab letters In Quran
To illustrate the rule of Iqlab further, we’ll go over some Iqlab examples from Quran for different cases:
1. Examples of Iqlab within one word
- – (وما ينبغي لهم وما يستطيعون)
- – (إذ انبعثَ أشْقَاها)
- – (فَكَانَتْ هَبَاءَاً مُنبَثَّا)
2. Example of Iqlab between two words
- (يَخْرُجُ مِن بَيْنِ الصُّلْبِ والتَّرَائِب)
- (وَأَمَّا مَن بَخِلَ وَاسْتَغْنَى)
- (وَاللهُ رَءُوفٌ بَالعِبَاد)
- (فَبِأَيِّ حدِيثٍ بعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُون)
Now, it’s time for some practice of the Iqlaab Tajweed rule. Look at the following picture and consider which verse contains a case of Iqlaab and which one doesn’t. Practice reciting the verse following the process we’ve explained in the article to recite quran beautifully :
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Characteristics of Iqlaab
Iqlab in Tajweed has the following characteristics:
- Noon Saakin or Tanween are changed into a hidden meem with the sound of Ghunnah when they are followed by Ba (ب) within one word as in: (الأنۢبَاءِ) or between two words as in: (واللهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُور).
- This transformation of Noon Saakin and Tanween into a Meem occurs only in pronunciation, not in the written form.
- Iqlab is highlighted in the Quran with a small Meem that is found on top of the Noon Saakin. Whereas in the case of Tanween, you will find that this symbol takes the place of the second line of Fatha and Kasrah or replaces the second Dummah.
Common Mistakes to Avoid with Iqlab
Iqlab, in and of itself, is not a challenging Tajweed rule to apply while reciting the Quran; however, there are some recurrent mistakes that learners of Tajweed make at the beginning of their journey to improve and perfect their quran recitation. These mistakes are as follows:
- While applying the rule of Iqlab, make sure not to pronounce the Meem in an intense manner that resembles the Meem Saakin in the case of Izhar. Note in the difference in pronouncing the Meem in these two examples:
- – (ألمْ نُهلكِ الأوَّلِين)
- – (ومن بيننَا وبينكَ حِجَاب)
In the first verse, the Meem Saakin is in a case of Izhar or clear pronunciation while in the second verse, it is pronounced without firmly pressing your lips together and accompanied by the sound of Ghunnah.
- The second mistake that learners of Tajweed often make is to pronounce this Meem while keeping a gap between their two lips. This is incorrect because it turns the case of Iqlaab, into Ikhfaa’. Instead, leave no gap between your lips as you pronounce the Meem. Look at this picture for illustration:
Why do we apply Iqlaab
The reason for the changing of Noon Saakin and Tanween into a Meem when they are followed by the letter Ba’ is to avoid the difficulty in pronunciation that arises from the fact that the two letters are pronounced from extremely different parts of the articulation system. Thus, the Noon and Tanween are transformed into a Meem since it is closer in pronunciation to the letter Ba’.
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