Even though learning Tajweed could be challenging, the endeavor only suits the greatness of the purpose and the reward. Nonetheless, we attempt in this article about Meem Sakinah rules to make your pursuit of learning Quran and Tajweed much easier by explaining them in a simple and easy-to-follow manner.
Table of Contents
Definition of Meem Sakinah:
We need to define Meem Sakinah before we delve into the Tajweed rules related to it. Meem is a letter of the Arabic alphabet that is written like this (م) but what does Sakinah mean?
In general, Sakinah meaning in Arabic is a person, thing, etc. that stays still without movement. As for its meaning in Tajweed, Meem Sakinah is a meem that does not have a Harakah (Fatha, Dummah, Kasrah) on it and this Sukoon is fixed when continuing or pausing.
What is Meem Sakinah?
A few points could be inferred from this definition:
- These cases of Meem do not fall under this category:
- A Meem that has a vowel or Harakah on it such as: (نَارُ الله المُوقَدَة)
- A Meem that has Shaddah on it, for example: (مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله)
- A Meem that became Mutharrik only to avoid the meeting of two successive Sukoon as in: (تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهمُ الأَنْهَار)
- Therefore, these are the conditions where the rules of Meem Sakinah apply:
- One that appears in the middle or at the end of words
- One that is found in verbs, nouns, or particles
- One that is an indication of plural form such as (لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِين)
Rules of Meem Sakinah:
When the Meem Sakinah fulfills these requirements, it has three possible cases:
- Ikhfaa Shafawi
- Idgham Shafawi
- Izhar Shafawi
1. Ikhfaa Shafawi:
The first of Tajweed rules for Meem Sakinah is Ikhfaa Shafawi. As stated before in the article on Noon Saakin and Tanween, the word “Ikhfaa” means hiding or concealing.
When there is a case of Ikhfaa, Meem Sakinah is hidden into the following letter and pronounced in a way between Izhar and Idgham. Also, there is a Ghunnah on the Meem. The case of Ikhfaa Meem Saakin is only established when the Meem is followed by one letter (ب) and this only takes place between two words.
The word “Shafawi” comes from the Arabic word “شفة” which means lips since it is the point of articulation for both Meem and Baa.
Examples of Ikhfaa Shafawi:
- – (وَمَا صَاحِبُكُم بِمَجْنُون)
- – (فَإِذَا هُم بِالسَّاهِرَة)
- – (أَمْ لَكُم بَرَاءَةٌ فِي الزُّبُر)
2. Idgham Shafawi:
Another case of Meem Sakinah occurs when it is followed by another Meem. This case of Idgham Meem Saakin is found when the first Meem is merged into the second Meem until they become one letter with Shaddah.
Examples of Idgham Shafawi:
- – (أَلَا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُم مّبْعُوثُون)
- (وَاللهُ مِن وَرَائِهِم مُّحِيط)
- (إِنَّهَا عَلَيْهِم مُّؤْصَدَة)
3. Izhar Shafawi:
The last and the easiest rule of Meem Sakinah is Izhar in which the Meem is pronounced clearly without hiding or merging it into the following letter. Izhar Shafawi occurs when Meem Sakinah is followed by the remaining letters of the alphabet (aside from ب-م). This is within one word or between two words.
Examples of Izhar Shafawi:
- – (عَلَيْهِمْ نَارٌ مّؤْصَدَة)
- – (فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُون)
- – (أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيل)
To test your understanding of the rules we explained, try to take this Meem Sakinah rules quiz:
In each point, you will find three verses; two of which share the same Meem Sakinah rule but one is different. Read them carefully and decide which verse doesn’t follow the same rule of Meem Sakinah:
- 1. (فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيم)- (فَأَنذَرْتُكُم نَارَاً تَلَظَّى)- (لَسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُصَيْطِر)
- 2. (ألم يعلم بأن الله يرى) – (الذين هم يراءون)- (لكم دينكم ولي دين)
- 3. (علّم الإنسان ما لم يعلم)- (وَأَنتُم مسْلِمُون)- (الذي أطعمهم من جوع وآمنهم من خوف)
- 4. (لم يلد ولم يولد)- (جزاؤهم عند ربهم)- (إِنَّ رَبَّهُم بِهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لخَبِير)
This article has explained Meem Saakin rules in English; Ikhfaa Shafawi, Idgham Shafawi and Izhar Shafawi along with Meem Saakin rules examples to clarify the three cases of Meem Sakinah with the letters that follow it.
The rules of Meem Sakinah are but a part of the Tajweed rules that a person who wishes to recite Quran properly needs to learn to follow in the footsteps of the Prophet PBUH and his companions.
You can easily learn these Tajweed rules and much more about Quran tajweed classes and Islamic studies here at Almuhammadi Academy as our online courses are a great learning opportunity for both kids and adults. Our skilled tutors will give you the necessary instruction and guidance that you need to improve your recitation of Quran. So, join our online courses today!