Learning about Laam Sakinah rules is a basic part of mastering Tajweed, and by extension, the proper recitation of the Quran. Laam Sakinah is a term in Tajweed that refers to the letter ل (Laam) when it is pronounced with a Sukoon (silent) vowel.
There are five different rules that govern how Laam Sakinah is pronounced, depending on the letter that follows it. In this blog post, we will discuss the five rules of Laam Sakinah in detail as well as provide examples of each rule, so that you can practice pronouncing them correctly.
What are the five categories of Laam Sakinah?
The first matter of importance that needs to be covered to understand the rules of Laam Sakinah is the five categories or kinds of Laam Sakinah. They include:
1. Laam Tareef
Laam Tareef is a part of speech in Arabic that is used to define nouns. It is a prefix that is added to the beginning of a noun, along with Hamzatul Wasl, and makes it specific. This means that the Laam here isn’t an original part of the structure of the word. Notice the difference between these two examples:
- The word “الكتاب ” means “the book” and the Laam which is added to the beginning of the word isn’t part of the basic form of the word “كتاب “
- The Laam in the word “ألف ” (thousand) is one of its founding letters, not an extra letter.
Moreover, Laam Tareef can be divided into two kinds: Laam Shamsiyah and Laam Qamariyah so let’s try to differentiate between the two kinds:
A. Laam Qamariyah is a Laam Tareef that is clear both in writing and pronunciation. It is followed by one of these Moon letters ( أ-ب-ج-ح-خ-ع-غ-ف-ق-ك-م-ه-و-ي ). Here are some examples of words with Laam Qamariyah:
ا لْحلم←ْthe dream
ا لْقلب←ْ the heart
ا لْجبل←ْ the mountain
B. Laam Shamsiyah: is a Laam Tareef that is written but not pronounced and it can be observed with Sun letters. The Sun letters or Huroof Al-Shamsiyya consist of the rest of the letters that are grouped in the following mnemonic:
(طب ثْم صْل رْحما تًْفز ضْف ذْا نْعم -ْ- دْع سْوء ظْن زْر شْريفا لًْلكرم)
Laam Shamsiyah can be found in these words:
الصلاة ← ْ the prayer
الذهب ← the gold
الشتاء←ْ the winter
You can also check our blog post on Laam Shamsiyah and Laam Qamariyah for a more detailed explanation of the rule.
2. Laam in a verb
Laam Sakinah can also occur in verbs whether in the past tense, present tense or the imperative form. It can take place in the middle or at the end of words such as (فالتقطه- قْل ).
3. Laam in a command
This type of Laam is added to the original structure of verbs in the present tense (المضارع ) changing them into the imperative form. This Laam is Saakin when it is preceded by one of the coordinating conjunctions ( ف-و-ثم ). It is found in words like ( و ليطوفوا- ثْم ليقطع ).
4. Laam in a noun
Laam Sakinah in a noun always occurs in medial position. Unlike Laam Tareef, this Laam is essential in the formation of the word, not additional. Thus, the meaning of the word is incomplete without its presence. Words that contain this Laam Sakinah include ( سلطان- أْلفافا ).
5. Laam in a particle
Similar to the previous type of Laam Sakinah, the Laam in a particle is part of the structure of the word. However, it only comes at the end of the particles ( هل-بل ).
Laam Sakinah Rules
These 5 categories of Laam Sakinah observe one of two rules; either Izhar or Idgham according to the type. That might sound confusing so let’s clarify the rules of Laam Sakinah:
Laam Sakinah is in a state of Izhar (pronounced clearly) when:
- Laam Tareef is followed by one of the Moon letters (ابغ حْجك وْخف عْقيمه ) such as الحاقة-ْ القلم- اْلأمن . This state is called إظهار قْمري .
- Generally, Laam Sakinah in verbs, nouns and particles are produced with Izhar as in
Idgham refers to the merging or blending of one sound into the other. In the following cases, Laam Sakinah is in the state of Idgham:
- Laam Tareef when it is followed by the Sun letters, the rest of the Arabic letters aside from the Moon letters:
- Laam Sakinah when it comes at the end of a verb or particle and the following word starts with ل or ر as in:
(ألم أْقل لْكم)
(كلا بْل لْا)
- In Arabic, Laam Sakinah doesn’t occur at the end of nouns, unlike the one in verbs and particles.
- The Idgham in the previously mentioned cases is Idgham without Ghunnah which means that the two letters are merged into each other without the sound of Ghunnah or nasalization.
How can you best learn the rules of Laam Sakinah?
Here are some tips to ensure that you ultimately reach your goal of learning the Laam Sakinah rules:
- Start with the basics: it is important to have a good foundation before you take on the task of learning these Tajweed rules. Try to be acquainted with the essential terminology related to the rule such as Izhar, Idgham, Laam Shamsiyah, and Laam Qamariyah.
- Break the rules down into smaller chunks: it could look difficult at first glance, but once you break it down into smaller parts, it would be much easier for you to grasp and then be able to apply it when reciting the Quran. This includes what Laam Sakinah is, the different rules that apply to it, and the different pronunciations that can occur.
- Find a good teacher: If you are struggling to learn the rules of Laam Sakinah, it can be helpful to get feedback from a qualified teacher. With the help of an online Tajweed course, you will be able to identify any areas where you are struggling and get personalized help.
- Practice regularly: Mastering a certain Tajweed rule doesn’t happen overnight; it requires a lot of dedication and practice. Either by reciting the Quran under the supervision of an expert tutor or simply listening to the Quran recitation of a well-known Qari’. All manners of practice are very effective in properly applying a Tajweed rule.
If you are interested in learning more about the rules of Laam Sakinah, we encourage you to check the Almuhammadi Academy website. We offer online Tajweed courses that will teach you all about the rules of Laam Sakinah and other aspects of Quranic recitation.
So sign up for the Tajweed course and start improving your Quranic recitation today!